Alternative Titles: Kingdom of Thailand, Ratcha Anachak Thai, Siam
Thailand, country located in the centre of mainland Southeast Asia. Located wholly within the tropics, Thailand encompasses diverse ecosystems, including the hilly forested areas of the northern frontier, the fertile rice fields of the central plains, the broad plateau of the northeast, and the rugged coasts along the narrow southern peninsula.
Until the second half of the 20th century, Thailand was primarily an agricultural country, but since the 1960s increasing numbers of people have moved to Bangkok, the capital, and to other cities. Although the greater Bangkok metropolitan area remains the preeminent urban centre in the country, there are other sizable cities, such as Chiang Mai in the north, Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat), Khon Kaen, and Udon Thani in the northeast, Pattaya in the southeast, and Hat Yai in the far south.
ThailandEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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Siam, as Thailand was officially called until 1939, was never brought under European colonial domination. Independent Siam was ruled by an absolute monarchy until a revolution there in 1932. Since that time, Thailand has been a constitutional monarchy, and all subsequent constitutions have provided for an elected parliament. Political authority, however, has often been held by the military, which has taken power through coups. During the last two decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, parliamentary democracy steadily gained wider popular support. Although a crisis emerged in 2006, when the military, aligned with the monarchy, overthrew an elected government, new parliamentary elections were held—as promised by the interim government—in 2007.
National anthem of ThailandRoyal anthem of ThailandOfficial nameRatcha Anachak Thai (Kingdom of Thailand)Form of governmentconstitutional monarchy with a 220-member interim legislature1Head of stateKing VajiralongkornHead of governmentPrime Minister: Prayuth Chan-ochaCapitalBangkokOfficial languageThaiOfficial religionnoneMonetary unitbaht (THB)Currency Exchange Rate1 USD equals 30.398 Thai bahtPopulation(2019 est.) 68,279,000Population rank(2018) 20Population projection 203065,578,000Total area (sq mi)198,117Total area (sq km)513,120Density: persons per sq mi(2018) 343.3Density: persons per sq km(2018) 132.6Urban-rural populationUrban: (2018) 49.9%Rural: (2018) 50.1%Life expectancy at birthMale: (2017) 71.7 yearsFemale: (2017) 78.3 yearsLiteracy: percentage of population age 15 and over literateMale: (2015) 94.7%Female: (2015) 91.2%GNI (U.S.$ ’000,000)(2017) 411,731GNI per capita (U.S.$)(2017) 5,960
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